Crude Oil Tanker Basics, 1st, 2009


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Subtitle: The Theory and Practice of Crude oil Cargo Operations
Number of Volumes: 1
Number of Pages: 192
Product Code: WS1078K
ISBN 13: 978-1-905331-63-5 (9781905331635)
ISBN 10: 1-905331-63-0 (1905331630)
Published Date: October 2009
Binding Format: Paperback

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Crude Oil Tanker Basics, 1st, 2009

Today, more than ever, Deck Officers are faced with increasingly intricate cargo loading systems at a time when an ever reducing period of required seatime for their first certificate of competency, creates increased pressure on the available time they actually do have for learning the basics of crude oil tanker practice.

What precious time is spent on cargo duties is often used in learning how to use the automated cargo control systems and therefore not covering the basics of operating crude oil tankers (whether they be Suezmax, VLCC or ULCCs) and their related activities such as venting, purging, understanding the operation of cargo pumps and the fundamentals of Inert Gas and Crude Oil Washing Systems. All of these operations, and more, are explained in this new 192 page book, which is supported with photographs taken onboard a new build VLCC.

1 Crude Oil Extraction

2 Crude Oil Chemistry
2.1 Classification of Crude Oil
2.2 Properties of Crude Oil
2.2.1 Density
2.2.2 Vapour Pressure
2.2.3 Flash Point
2.2.4 Pour Point
2.2.5 Wax Content
2.2.6 Cloud Point
2.2.7 Viscosity
2.2.8 Basic Sediments and Water (BS&W)
2.2.9 Sulphur Content
2.2.10 Benzene Content

3 Measurement of Cargo Quantity
3.1 Level Measurement (Tank Gauging)
3.2 Temperature Measurement
3.3 Detecting Water

4 Calculating Cargo Quantity
4.1 Calculating the Cargo Requirement
4.2 Calculating the Weight of Cargo
4.3 Calculating the Volume of Cargo
4.4 Cargo Distribution
4.5 Load Port Calculations
4.6 Calculation of Cargo Loaded and Discharged
4.7 Calculating Residual Quantities
4.8 Comparing Onboard Quantities with Bill of Lading (B/L) Figures
4.8.1 Gross and Net Quantities
4.8.2 Vessel Inspection Factor (VEF)

5 Loading Rates and Venting
5.1 Maximum Loading Rate
5.2 Minimum Loading Rate
5.3 Topping off Loading Rate
5.4 Cargo Tank Vetting During Loading
5.4.1 Venting Requirements
5.4.2 Venting Using a Mast Riser
5.4.3 Venting Using Hi-Velocity Vents
5.4.4 Loading Using Vapour Recovery
5.4.5 Essential Components of a VECS
5.4.6 Loading Rates under a VECS
5.4.7 Preparations Prior to Arrival at a Loading Port where a VECS is to be used.

6 Preparing for Cargo Transfer
6.1 Planning
6.1.1 The Planning Process
6.1.2 Updating the Plan
6.2 Testing and Checking Equipment

7 The Loading Operation
7.1 Initial Loading Phase
7.2 Full Rate Phase
7.3 Topping off and changing Over Tanks
7.4 Completing Phase

8 Pumping and Pump Theory
8.1 Pressure and Head
8.1.1 Units of Pressure
8.2 Pump Suction Conditions
8.3 Pump Discharge Conditions
8.4 Construction and Principles of Operation of Centrifugal Pumps
8.4.1 Pump Affinity Laws
8.5 Pump Suction Conditions
8.6 Discharge Conditions
8.6.1 Using HQ Curves and System Curves
8.6.2 Changing Pump Speed
8.6.3 Total Discharge Head and Volumetric Flow Rate with Two Pumps Operating in Parallel
8.6.4 High Shore Resistance Conditions
8.6.5 Low Shore Resistance Conditions
8.6.6 Practical Considerations When Operating Centrifugal Pumps
8.7 Water Hammer
8.8 Stripping Systems
8.8.1 Stripping Pumps
8.8.2 Eductors
8.8.3 Automatic Cargo Pump Stripping System (Vac Strip)

9 Cargo Discharge Operations
9.1 Commencement of Discharge
9.2 Discharging at Full Rate
9.3 Stripping
9.4 Stripping Line Contents

10 Inert Gas
10.1 Chemistry of Inert Flue Gas
10.2 Production and Processing of Inert Flue Gas
10.3 Preparing the IG System
10.4 Primary Inerting
10.5 Purging
10.6 Monitoring Gas Concentrations
10.7 Operation of the IG System during Cargo Discharge
10.8 Cold Weather Precautions when Using the IG System

11 Crude Oil Washing (COW)
11.1 The Chemistry of COW
11.2 Hazards of COW
11.2.1 Ignition as a Result of Electrostatic Generation
11.2.2 Oil Spillage as a Result of Leakage from a COW Piping System or Tank Cleaning Machine
11.3 COW Methodology
11.3.1 COW Tanks with Homogeneous Cargo
11.3.2 COW Tanks with Different Grades of Crude Oil
11.3.3 Dealing with Residual ROB after COW
11.4 Programming COW Machines
11.4.1 Azimuth Rotational Speed (rpm)
11.4.2 Pitch Angle (Degrees per Rotation)
11.4.3 Vertical Wash Angle (Degrees)

12 Ballasting, Deballasting and Crude Oil Content Discharge Control
12.1 Ballast Tank Arrangements
12.2 Piping and Pumps
12.3 Venting Arrangement
12.4 Oil Discharge Monitoring and Control Equipment (ODME)
12.5 Ballasting and Deballasting Segregated Ballast Tanks (SBTs)
12.5.1 Ballasting
12.5.2 Deballasting
12.6 Ballasting and Debasllating Cargo Tanks
12.6.1 Ballasting Cargo Tanks that have not been Water Washed
12.6.2 Heavy Weather Ballasting
12.6.3 Ballasting Cargo Tanks on Occasions other than in Heavy Weather
12.6.4 Pre-Ballasting Checklist
12.6.5 Testing the Integrity of Sea Valves
12.6.6 Controlling the Operation of Sea Valves
12.6.7 Ballasting Previously Water Washed Cargo Oil Tanks
12.6.8 Deballasting Clean Ballast from Cargo Tanks
12.6.9 Discharging Dirty Ballast from Cargo Oil Tanks
12.7 Decanting
12.8 Ballast Exchange

13 Preparing for Maintenance
13.1 Tank Cleaning / Washing
13.1.1 Tank Cleaning Systems
13.1.2 Assessing the Degree of Tank Cleaning Required
13.1.3 Preparing for Tank Cleaning
13.1.4 Tank Washing Method
13.1.5 Tank Washing Procedure
13.2 Line Washing
13.2.1 Points to Consider when Planning Line Washing
13.2.2 Typical Line Washing Method
13.2.3 Precautions to be taken during Line Washing
13.3 Gas Freeing
13.4 Gas Detection and Measurement
13.4.1 Sensors Commonly used in portable Gas Detection Instruments
13.4.2 Maintenance and Calibration of Gas Detection Instruments
13.4.3 Measurement
13.5 Operations Requiring Tank Cleaning and Line Washing
13.5.1 Sludge Removal
13.5.2 Rafting
13.5.3 Hot Work
13.5.4 Cold Work

14 Contingencies and Emergencies
14.1 Cargo Equipment or Systems Failure
14.2 Problems during Pumping
14.3 Inert Gas System Failure
14.3.1 Immediate Action to be taken in the event of IGS Failure
14.3.2 Use of Topping up Inert Gas Generator as Emergency Inert Gas Supply During Discharge
14.3.3 Use of a Shore Supplied Portable IG Generator
14.4 Cargo or Ballast Leakage
14.4.1 Consequences of Tank Leakage
14.4.2 Sources of Leakage
14.4.3 Indications of Leakage
14.4.4 Valve Failure
14.4.5 ODME Failure
14.4.6 Dealing with Contaminated Segregated Ballast
14.5 Marine Pollution
14.5.1 Oil Spills
14.5.2 Isolating the Source of a Deck Oil Spill
14.5.3 Containing an Oil Spill Onboard
14.5.4 Transfer of Oil Accumulated on Deck
14.5.5 Clean Up of Oil Spilled on Deck
14.5.6 Reporting Oil Spills
14.5.7 Pump room Spillage
14.5.8 Recording Oil Spills
14.6 Oil Outflow due to Hull Damage
14.6.1 Grounding
14.6.2 Hull Leakage as a Result of Contract with Fixed or Floating Objects
14.6.3 Oil Pollution of unknown Origin

15 Crude Oil Trade, Voyage Fixing and Economics
15.1 Crude Oil Trading
15.2 Chartering
15.3 Charter Types
15.4 Voyage Economics
15.5 Crude Oil Trade


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