Liquefied Gas Handling Principles on Ships and in Terminals, (LGHP4) 4th Edition

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Title: Liquefied Gas Handling Principles on Ships and in Terminals 3rd Ed
Edition: Third Edition
Number of Pages: 276
Product Code: 4400w038
ISBN 13: 978-1-85609-714-7 (9781856097147)
ISBN 10: 1-85609-714-5 (1856097145)
Published Date: February 1999
Binding Format: Hardback

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Liquefied Gas Handling Principles on Ships and in Terminals, (LGHP4) 4th Edition

This fully illustrated 500-page reference book covers every aspect of the safe handling of bulk liquid gases (LNG, LPG and chemical gases) on board ships and at the ship/shore interface at terminals. It is indispensable for personnel training for operational qualifications as well as those already engaged in liquefied gas operations.

The publication has been written primarily for serving ships’ officers and terminal staff who are responsible for cargo handling operations, but also for personnel who are about to be placed in positions of responsibility for these operations.  Its appeal extends also to many others, not directly involved in the operational aspects of the industry, who require a comprehensive and ready reference for technical aspects of their businesses. Liquefied Gas Handling Principles emphasises the importance of understanding the physical properties of gases in relation to the practical operation of gas-handling equipment on ships and at terminals.

In the sixteen years since this publication was last updated, the liquefied gas shipping and terminal industry has undergone considerable change. This revision reflects these changes which include, but are not limited to, vessel design, propulsion systems, size of fleet, floating regasification and reliquefaction, Arctic LNG, containment systems, efficiency increases in vessel operations, vessel capacities, technology, best practice and legislation.

Contents
Preface to the Fourth Edition
Prefaces to the Previous Editions
Figures and Tables
Definitions
Key to Symbols

CHAPTER 1 Overview of the Carriage of Liquefied Gases by Sea

 

1.1

The Liquefied Gases

 

1.1.1 LNG production

 

1.1.2 LPG production

 

1.1.3 Chemical gases production

1.2

The Principal Products

1.3

Gas Carrier Fleet

1.4

Safety Record

1.5

Regulatory Framework

 

1.5.1 Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS)

 

1.5.2 International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution From Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 (MARPOL 73/78)

 

1.5.3 International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW)

 

1.5.4 Recommendations on the Safe Transport of Dangerous Cargoes and Related Activities in Port Areas

 

1.5.5 Ship certification

 

 

CHAPTER 2 Properties of Liquefied Gases

Chapter 2 Part a) The Chemistry of Liquefied Gases

    1. Atoms, Molecules and Chemical Bonds

      1. The hydrocarbon series

      2. Chemical formulae and the IUPAC naming system

      3. Saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons 24

    2. The Chemical Gases 28

    3. Chemical Reactivity and Compatibility 31

      1. Reactivity with construction materials 31

      2. Reactivity with other cargoes 32

    4. Self-Reaction 33

      1. Reactive properties 33

      2. Formation of polymers or dimers 33

    5. Reaction with Water – Hydrate Formation 37

    6. Reaction with Air 39

      1. Combustion 39

      2. Flammability/flammable range 40

    7. Suppression of Flammability 44

      1. Inert gas and nitrogen 45

      2. The use of inert gas 46

      3. The chemical compatibility of cargoes with inert gas or nitrogen 47

Chapter 2 Part b) The Physics of Liquefied Gases 49

    1. The Physical Properties of Liquefied Gases and their States of Matter 49

      1. Temperature, heat energy and phase change 49

      2. Specific heat, enthalpy and entropy 50

      3. Phase change – a summary 51

      4. Saturated vapour pressure (SVP) 52

      5. Liquid and vapour densities 55

      6. Liquid to vapour volume ratios 55

      7. Spillage of cargo liquid 56

      8. Viscosity of liquid cargoes 57

Chapter 2 Part c) Gas Laws, Thermodynamic Principles and Reliquefaction 59

    1. The Gas Laws and Thermodynamic Principles 59

      1. Liquefied gas mixtures, their vapour pressures and compositions 62

      2. The ‘bubble point’ and ‘dew point’ of mixtures 64

      3. The laws of thermodynamics 66

      4. Enthalpy and Mollier charts 67

      5. Thermodynamic systems – isothermal, isentropic and adiabatic processes 70

      6. Heat transfer 71

      7. Practical examples of heat transfer 72

      8. Rollover 73

    2. Reliquefaction 75

2.10.1

Indirect cycle

76

2.10.2

Direct cycle

77

2.10.3

Cascade cycle

84

2.10.4

LNG reliquefaction cycles

86

 

 

CHAPTER 3

Liquefied Gas Carrier Types

93

 

 

Chapter 3 Part a) Gas Carrier Types

 

95

 

3.1 Design Standards and Ship Types

95

 

3.1.1 The IGC Code

95

 

3.1.2 Factors affecting gas carrier design

97

 

3.2 Gas Carrier Types

98

 

3.2.1 Fully-pressurised ships

98

 

3.2.2 Semi-refrigerated ships

99

 

3.2.3 Fully-refrigerated ships

100

 

3.2.4 Ethylene/ethane ships

102

 

3.2.5 LNG carriers

103

 

3.2.6 Regasification vessels (RVs)

104

 

3.3 Gas Carrier Layout

105

 

3.4 Hazardous Zones

107

 

3.4.1 Hazardous area classification

107

 

3.4.2 IEC definitions

108

 

3.4.3 Zone determination

109

 

3.4.4 Ventilation

109

 

3.5 Survival Capability

110

 

3.6 Surveys and Certification

111

 

3.6.1 Certificate of fitness

111

 

3.6.2 Carriage of noxious liquid substances (NLS)

112

 

 

Chapter 3 Part b) Cargo Containment Systems

 

113

 

3.7 Materials of Construction and Insulation

113

 

3.7.1 Construction materials

113

 

3.7.2 Tank insulation

114

 

3.8 Cargo Containment Systems

116

 

3.8.1 Type A tanks

118

 

3.8.2 Type B tanks

121

 

3.8.3 Type C tanks (semi-refrigerated)

125

 

3.8.4 Type C tanks (fully-pressurised)

126

 

3.8.5 Membrane tanks

126

 

3.8.6 Semi-membrane containment system

134

 

3.8.7 Integral tanks

134

 

 

Chapter 3 Part c)

Propulsion System Types

135

3.9 Propulsion

System Types on LNG Carriers

135

3.9.1

Steam

137

3.9.2

Dual fuel diesel electric (DFDE)

139

3.9.3

Slow speed diesel (oil fuel)

141

3.9.4

Slow speed diesel (gas fuel)

141

 

 

CHAPTER 4 The Ship – Cargo Equipment 143

    1. Cargo Pipelines and Valves 145

      1. Cargo pipelines 145

      2. Hazards of cargo line pressure testing 146

      3. Cargo manifold reducers 147

      4. Cargo valves 149

      5. Cargo strainers 152

      6. Emergency shutdown (ESD) systems 154

      7. Effect of surge pressure should ESD activate 158

      8. Relief valves for cargo tanks and pipelines 158

      9. Types of pressure relief valves 160

    2. Cargo Pumps 164

      1. Pump performance curves 164

      2. Deepwell pumps 167

      3. Submerged motor pumps 168

      4. Booster pumps 169

      5. Ice prevention at cargo pumps 170

      6. Emergency cargo pumps 170

    3. Deck Tanks 172

    4. Cargo Heaters 173

      1. Direct cargo heaters 174

      2. Indirect cargo heaters 176

    5. Cargo Vaporisers 177

    6. Regasification Units 179

      1. Closed loop with steam heating 179

      2. Combined open/closed loop with seawater and steam heating 179

      3. Closed loop with steam heating and intermediate water/glycol loop 180

      4. Open loop with seawater heating and intermediate propane loop 180

 

 

4.7 LPG Reliquefaction Plant and Boil-Off Control

181

4.7.1 Cargo compressors and associated equipment

181

4.7.2 Reciprocating compressors

182

4.7.3 Screw compressors

183

4.7.4 Compressor suction liquid separator

184

4.7.5 Cargo compressor suction gas cooling

184

4.7.6 Purge gas condenser

185

4.8 LNG Reliquefaction Plant and Boil-off Control Systems

186

4.8.1 LNG boil-off and vapour handling systems

186

4.8.2 LNG compressors (vapour return and fuel gas)

187

4.8.3 Gas combustion units (GCU)

188

4.8.4 LNG reliquefaction

189

4.9 Inert Gas and Nitrogen Systems

192

4.9.1 Inert gas generators

193

4.9.2 Nitrogen production on ships

196

4.9.3 Pure nitrogen from the shore

197

4.10 Electrical Equipment

198

4.11 Cargo Instrumentation

200

4.11.1 Liquid level instrumentation

200

4.11.2 Magnetic level transmitters

203

4.11.3 Level alarm and automatic shutdown systems

205

4.11.4 Pressure and temperature monitoring

205

4.11.5 Gas detection systems

206

4.11.6 LNG custody transfer measurement systems (CTMS)

208

4.11.7 Integrated systems

208

4.11.8 Calibration

208

4.12 Ship/Shore Links

209

 

CHAPTER 5

 

The Terminal

 

211

 

 

Chapter 5 Part a) Onshore

 

213

 

5.1 Safe Jetty Designs

213

 

5.2 Cargo Transfer Systems

215

 

5.2.1 Hoses

216

 

5.2.2 Marine loading arms (MLAs)

217

 

5.2.3 Vapour return

223

 

5.2.4 Insulating flanges

225

 

    1. Shore Storage 226

      1. Pressurised storage at ambient temperature 227

      2. Storage in semi-pressurised spheres 232

      3. Refrigerated storage at atmospheric pressure 233

      4. Construction materials and design 239

    2. Ancillary Equipment 240

      1. Pressure relief venting 240

      2. Pipelines and valves – engineering standards and surge pressure 240

      3. Pumps, compressors and heat exchangers 246

    3. Instrumentation 252

      1. Product metering 252

      2. Pressure, temperature and level instrumentation 254

Chapter 5 Part b) Offshore 255

    1. Floating Terminals 256

    2. Facility Layout 258

      1. Engineering design considerations 260

      2. Other considerations 261

    3. Topsides Production Facilities 264

      1. Topsides production facility (LPG specific) 264

      2. Topsides production facility (LNG specific) 264

      3. Topsides production facility (regas specific) 266

    4. Product Storage and Offloading 269

      1. Cargo containment systems 269

    5. Mooring Systems 270

    6. Cargo Transfer Systems 272

      1. Side by side offloading 272

      2. Tandem offloading 273

      3. Hoses for ship to ship and offshore transfer systems 273

      4. Surge considerations for ship to ship and offshore transfer systems 274

CHAPTER 6 The Ship/Shore Interface 275

    1. Supervision and Control 277

    2. Design Considerations 278

6.2.1

Jetty operations

278

6.2.2

The terminal

279

6.2.3

The ship

279

 

 

6.3

Ship/Shore Compatibility Process (LNG)

280

 

6.3.1 Ship and terminal particulars

280

 

6.3.2 Mooring arrangements

280

 

6.3.3 Ship manifold, shore hose and marine loading arm (MLA) characteristics

 

281

 

6.3.4 Terminal gangway characteristics and ship deck landing configuration

282

 

6.3.5 Ship/shore link (SSL)

283

 

6.3.6 Other compatibility considerations

284

6.4

Ship/Shore Compatibility Process (Other Liquefied Gases)

285

6.5

Communications

286

 

6.5.1 Prior to charter

286

 

6.5.2 Prior to arrival

286

 

6.5.3 Alongside the jetty

287

 

6.5.4 Navigation, docking, mooring, meteorological and oceanographic systems

 

287

6.6

Discussions Prior to Cargo Transfer

289

6.7

Ship/Shore Safety Checklist

291

6.8

Supervision and Control During Cargo Transfer

293

 

6.8.1 Joint agreement on readiness for cargo transfer operations

293

 

6.8.2 Supervision

293

 

6.8.3 Periodic checks during cargo transfer operations

293

6.9

Operational Considerations

294

 

6.9.1 Berthing and mooring

294

 

6.9.2 Connection and disconnection of cargo hoses and MLAs

295

 

6.9.3 Cargo handling procedures

296

 

6.9.4 Cargo surveyors

297

 

6.9.5 Gangways and ship security

297

 

6.9.6 Bunkering

298

 

6.9.7 Work permits

299

 

6.9.8 Access to cargo manifold during transfer

299

6.10

Fire-Fighting and Safety

300

6.11

Linked Emergency Shutdown (ESD) Systems

302

6.12

Terminal Booklet – Information and Regulation

304

6.13

Training

305

 

CHAPTER 7 Cargo Handling Operations 307

    1. Sequence of Operations 309

    2. Initial Preparations 311

 

 

7.2.1

Tank inspection

311

7.2.2

Drying – cargo system

311

7.2.3

Drying – hold spaces and interbarrier spaces

313

7.3

Changing

Tank Atmospheres

314

 

7.3.1

Principles of atmosphere changing

315

 

7.3.2

Displacement

315

 

7.3.3

Dilution

317

7.4

Inerting –

Before Loading

319

 

7.4.1

Inerting pipelines and cargo machinery

320

 

 

7.5

7.4.2

Gassing-U

Tank preparation prior to loading ammonia

p

321

322

 

7.5.1

Gassing-up at sea using liquid from tanks

323

 

7.5.2

Gassing-up alongside

324

7.6

Cool-down

328

 

7.6.1

Refrigerated LPG cargoes

329

 

7.6.2

LNG

330

 

7.6.3

Semi-pressurised/semi-refrigerated ships

331

7.7

Loading

 

332

 

7.7.1

Preliminary procedures

332

 

7.7.2

Trim, stability and stress

333

 

7.7.3

Sloshing

333

 

7.7.4

Management of tank pressure during loading

334

 

7.7.5

Commencement of loading

338

 

7.7.6

Operation of the reliquefaction plant during bulk loading of LPG

340

 

7.7.7

Operation of the reliquefaction plant during bulk loading of LNG

341

 

7.7.8

Cargo tank loading limits

341

7.8 The Loaded Voyage 345

7.8.1

Cargo temperature and pressure control

345

7.8.2

Operation of the reliquefaction plant on refrigerated LPG carriers

346

7.8.3

Operation of the reliquefaction plant on LNG carriers

348

7.8.4

LNG carriers – gas combustion unit (GCU)

350

7.8.5

LNG boil-off gas (BOG) as fuel

351

7.8.6

Other boil-off gas (BOG) as fuel

352

 

    1. Discharging 353

      1. Discharge by pressurising the vapour space 353

      2. Discharge by cargo pump 353

      3. Discharge via booster pump and cargo heater 357

      4. Tank pressure management 357

      5. Operation of the reliquefaction plant during discharge 361

      6. Completion of discharge 361

      7. Draining of tanks and pipelines 362

    2. The Ballast Voyage 364

      1. LPG carriers 364

      2. LNG carriers 364

    3. LNG Carrier – Ballast Voyage on Ships Fitted with a Combination

of a Reliquefaction Plant/GCU 365

      1. Warm ballast voyage (use of GCU) 365

      2. Cold ballast voyage (use of reliquefaction plant) 365

    1. Gas-Freeing 366

      3

      1. LPG/NH carriers 366

      2. LNG carriers 372

    2. Ship to Ship Transfer (STS) 377

CHAPTER 8 Cargo Measurement and Calculation 379

 

8.1

Principles

for Liquefied Gases

381

 

8.1.1

Special practices for gas cargoes

381

 

8.1.2

General – density in air and density in a vacuum

382

 

8.1.3

Gas-up and cool-down quantity calculation

386

 

8.1.4

Shore terminal considerations

387

    1. Taking Samples of Liquefied Gas Cargoes 389

      1. Why cargo samples are taken 389

      2. Sampling systems – ‘open loop’ or ‘closed loop’ systems 390

      3. The procedures involved in taking samples 393

    2. Measurement of Cargo Tank Volumes 396

      1. Trim correction 397

      2. List correction 398

      3. Tape correction 398

      4. Float correction 398

      5. Tank shell contraction and expansion 398

    3. Measurement of Density 399

      1. Density measurement methods 399

 

8.5

Ship/Shore Calculation Procedures

401

 

8.5.1 Outline of weight in air calculation

401

 

8.5.2 Procedures using standard temperature

401

8.6

Example – LPG Cargo Calculation

403

8.7

Other Calculation Procedures and Measurement Units

404

8.8

LNG Quantification

405

 

8.8.1 Example of contractual requirements for the measurement of the energy transferred at an LNG unloading terminal

 

410

8.9

Cargo Documentation

415

 

CHAPTER 9 Health, Environment and Safety Management 417

Chapter 9 Part a) Safety Management 419

    1. Safety Management Systems (SMS) 419

    2. Security 421

    3. Safety Organisation 422

      1. Terminal organisational structure 422

      2. Shipboard safety organisation 422

      3. Training, competency and experience 424

Chapter 9 Part b) Hazards and Emergency Procedures 425

    1. Principal Hazards 425

      1. Flammability 426

      2. Jet fires 427

      3. Liquid (pool) fires 427

      4. Vapour cloud explosion 429

      5. BLEVE 429

      6. Vaporisation of spilled liquid 430

      7. Rapid phase transitions (RPT) 430

      8. Uncontrolled release of vapour 431

      9. Vapour exposure 431

      10. Asphyxia (suffocation) 434

      11. Medical treatment for asphyxia or the effects of toxic materials 436

      12. Giving oxygen to a casualty 438

      13. Frostbite 440

      14. Chemical burns 442

      15. Other hazards of liquefied gases 442

    2. Emergency Planning 443

      1. The emergency plan 443

      2. Ship emergency procedures 443

      3. Terminal emergency procedures 444

    3. Removal of Ship from Berth 446

    4. Ship to Ship Cargo Transfer 447

    5. Hazards with the Use of Hoses and Marine Loading Arms (MLAs) 448

    6. Sources of Ignition 450

    7. Fire and Fire-Fighting Management 451

    8. Extinguishing Mediums 452

      1. Water 452

      2. Foam 453

      3. Dry chemical powders 453

      4. Carbon dioxide (CO2) systems 454

      5. Alarm procedures 455

      6. Training 456

Chapter 9 Part c) Process Safety 457

    1. Risk Assessment 460

      1. Principles of risk assessment 460

      2. Qualitative versus quantitative 461

      3. Inherent risk versus residual risk 461

      4. Risk assessments in practice 462

    2. Procedures 463

    3. Standards 464

    4. Management of Change (MoC) 465

    5. Inspection and Maintenance 467

    6. Permit to Work Systems (PTW) 469

      1. Types of permit to work 472

      2. Lock-out and tag-out 476

    7. Incident Investigation and Reporting 478

      1. Incident reporting 478

      2. Root cause analysis (RCA) and risk assessments 479

    8. Process Safety Information 480

Chapter 9 Part d) Personal Health & Safety 481

    1. Hazardous Atmospheres 481

    2. Personal Protection 482

      1. Induction 482

    3. Entry into Enclosed Spaces 484

      1. Precautions for tank entry 484

      2. Procedures for tank entry 485

      3. Rescue from enclosed spaces 485

      4. Mandatory enclosed space entry and rescue drills 486

    4. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) 487

    5. General Safety Precautions 488

      1. Breathing apparatus 490

      2. Protective clothing 492

    6. Safety Data Sheets (SDS) 493

Chapter 9 Part e) Environmental Stewardship 495

    1. Air Emissions 496

    2. Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) 497

    3. Effect of Non-Core Ship/Shore Services 498

Appendix 499

Index 505

Other SIGTTO Publications You May be Interested in 521

Reference Tables and Diagrams

Figures and Tables

Inside front and back covers — LPG, LEC and LNG carriers (to scale) 

Figure No.

 

Figure 1.1

Title

 

Constituents of natural gas

 

 

4

Figure 1.2

Flow diagram for a typical gas liquefaction plant (known as a ‘train’)

5

Figure 1.3

The production, transport and use of LPGs

6

Figure 1.4

Production of chemical gases (simplified)

7

Figure 2.1

Atoms consist of electrons, protons and neutrons

19

Figure 2.2

Methane CH4

21

Figure 2.3

Ethane C2H6

21

Figure 2.4

Propane C3H8

22

Figure 2.5

Normal butane C4H10

22

Figure 2.6

Iso-butane

22

Figure 2.7

Saturated hydrocarbon (ethane (C2H6))

24

Figure 2.8

Unsaturated hydrocarbons (ethylene (C2H4) and acetylene (C2H2))

25

Figure 2.9

Butadiene structures

25

Figure 2.10

Vinyl chloride (C2H3CI)

29

Figure 2.11

Ethylene oxide (C

 
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